My first book release!! Cloud Native Microservices with Spring and Kubernetes (453 pages)

I am happy to announce release of my first book “Cloud Native Microservices with Spring and Kubernetes” with BPB Publications!! It’s all about design, build and deploy scalable cloud native microservices on container using the Spring framework and Kubernetes. Need your support! Please buy and review this book on Amazon. Also, share book detail with your IT software engineers colleagues and friends.

The main objective of this book is to give an overview of cloud native microservices, their architecture, design patterns, best practices, use cases  and practical coverage of modern applications. This book covers a strong understanding of microservices, API first approach, Testing, Observability, API Gateway, Service Mesh and Kubernetes alternatives of Spring Cloud. This book covers the implementation of various design patterns of developing cloud native microservices using Spring framework, docker and Kubernetes. It also covers containerization concepts and hands-on code exercises.

After reading this book, the readers will have a holistic understanding of building, running, and managing cloud native microservices applications on Kubernetes containers.

It’s the first book on this subject in India by any Indian writer, which is also economical than foreign publications. This book is about learning of software application design and development using Microservices, Spring and Kubernetes based technologies. It’s useful for software developers, cloud engineers, DevOps and technical architects.

How to buy:

  • Amazon

This book is available in paperback and Kindle (eBook on free Kindle app on Android/iOS/Laptop/Desktop) edition on amazon and BPB in most of the countries of North America, Europe, Middle East, Asia and Africa.

Refer free preview and TOC/Index of this book:

What you will learn:

  • Learn fundamentals of microservice and design patterns.
  • Perform end-to-end microservices testing using Cucumber.
  • Learn  microservices development using Spring Boot and Kubernetes.
  • Learn to develop reactive, event-driven, and batch microservices.
  • Perform end-to-end microservices testing using Cucumber.
  • Implement API gateway,authentication & authorization,load balancing, caching, rate limiting.
  • Learn observability and monitoring techniques of microservices

Who this book is for:
This book is for the Spring Developers, Microservice Developers, Cloud Engineers, DevOps Consultants, Technical Architect and Solution Architects.

Table of Contents (Chapters):
1. Overview of Cloud Native microservices
2. Microservice design patterns
3. API first approach
4. Build microservices using the Spring Framework
5. Batch microservices
6. Build reactive and event-driven microservices
7. The API gateway, security, and distributed caching with Redis
8. Microservices testing and API mocking
9. Microservices observability
10. Containers and Kubernetes overview and architecture
11. Run microservices on Kubernetes
12. Service Mesh and Kubernetes alternatives of Spring Cloud


  • Complete coverage on how to design, build, run, and deploy modern cloud native microservices.
  • Includes numerous sample code exercises on microservices, Spring and Kubernetes.
  • Develop a stronghold on Kubernetes, Spring, and the microservices architecture.
  • Complete guide of application containerization on Kubernetes containers.
  • Coverage on managing modern applications and infrastructure using observability tools.

Chapter 1: Overview of Cloud Native microservices, introduces cloud native modern applications, cloud first overview, benefits, types of clouds, classification, and the need for cloud native modern applications. It will cover detailed microservices (MSA ) overview, characteristics, motivations, benefits, best practices, architecture principles, challenges and solutions, application modernization spectrum, twelve-factor apps, and beyond twelve-factor apps.s

Chapter 2: Microservice design patterns, introduces various microservices design patterns with use cases, advantages, and disadvantages.

Chapter 3: API first approach, discusses fundamentals of the API first approach. It discusses details of the REST overview, API model, best practices, design principles, components, security, communication protocols, and how to document dynamically with OpenAPI Swagger. It discusses API design planning, specifications, API management tools, and testing API with SwaggerHub inspector and PostMan REST client.

Chapter 4: Build microservices using the Spring Framework, is a key chapter of Spring Boot and Spring Cloud components with hands-on lab exercises. It will cover steps to build microservice using the REST API framework. It covers the Spring Cloud config server and resiliency of microservices practical aspects.

Chapter 5: Batch microservices, introduces batch microservices, use cases, Spring Cloud Task, and Spring Batch. It discusses hands-on lab exercises using Spring Cloud Data Flow (SCDF) and Kafka. It also discusses a few Spring batch practices, auto-scaling techniques, batch orchestration, and compositions methods for sequential or parallel batch processing. Last but not the least; it talks about alerts and monitoring of Spring Cloud Task and Spring Batch.

Chapter 6:  Build reactive and event-driven microservices, describes building of reactive microservices, non-blocking synchronous APIs, and event-driven asynchronous microservices. It covers steps to develop sample reactive microservices with Spring’s project Reactor, Spring WebFlux, and event-driven asynchronous microservices. It discusses Spring Cloud Stream, Zookeeper, SpringBoot, and overview of Kafka. It also covers hands-on lab exercises of event-driven asynchronous microservices using Spring Cloud Stream and Kafka.

Chapter 7:  API gateway, security, and distributed caching with Redis, introduces the API Gateway overview, features, advantages, and best practices. It covers hands-on lab exercises to expose REST APIs of microservices externally with the Spring Cloud Gateway. It covers distributed caching overview and hands-on lab exercises using Redis. It discusses API gateway rate limiting and Implementation of API gateway rate limiting with Redis and Spring Boot. Last but not the least, it covers best practices of API Security. Implementation of SSO using Spring Cloud Gateway, Spring Security, Oauth2, Keycloak, OpenId, and JWT tokens.

Chapter 8: Microservices testing and API mocking, describes important aspects of microservices testing practices, challenges, benefits, testing strategy, testing pyramid, and different types of microservices testing. It covers implementation of the integration testing framework using Behavioral Driven Development (BDD) with hands-on code examples. It also discusses microservices testing tools and best practices of microservices testing. It covers the role of testing in the microservices CI/CD pipeline. Last but not the least; it talks about API mocking and hands-on lab implementation with the WireMock framework.

Chapter 9: Microservices observability, covers detail observability and monitoring overview and techniques of microservices with the Spring actuator, micrometer health APIs, and Wavefront APM. It covers application logging overview, best practices, simple logging, and log aggregation of distributed microservices with implementation using Elasticsearch, Fluentd, and Kibana (EFK) on the Kubernetes container. It discusses the need of APM performance and telemetry monitoring tools for distributed microservices and how to trace multiple microservices in a distributed environment. It also covers hands-on lab implementation of monitoring microservices with Prometheus and Grafana.

Chapter 10: Containers and Kubernetes overview and architecture, is a key chapter which introduces containers, docker, docker engine containerization, Buildpacks, components of docker files, build docker files, run docker files, and inspect docker images. It covers docker image registry and how to persist docker images in image container registries. It covers an overview of Kubernetes, need, and architecture. Last but not the least; it covers a detailed introduction of Kubernetes resources.

Chapter 11: Run microservices on Kubernetes, discusses practical aspects of Kubernetes, installation, and configuration with monitoring and visualization tools with Octant and Proxy. It discusses how to create and manage Kubernetes clusters in detail. It discusses hands-on exercises of creating docker images of Java microservices, pushing it to the Docker hub container image registry, and deploying to Kubernetes clusters. It covers hands-on lab examples of exposing API endpoints of microservices outside the Kubernetes cluster by using the Nginx ingress controller. Last but not the least; it covers various popular and useful Kubernetes application deployment and configuration of management tools.

Chapter 12: Service Mesh and Kubernetes alternatives of Spring Cloud, covers a detailed overview and benefits of GitOps and Service Mesh. It covers the Istio Service Mesh architecture and deployment of microservices on Kubernetes with Argo CD. Last but not the least; it discusses various Kubernetes alternatives of Spring Cloud projects and popular cloud buzzwords!

About the Author
Rajiv Srivastava is the founder of, which is a cloud native modern application tech blog site. He is a cloud solution architect and modern application specialist with 16+ years of work experience in software development and architectural design.


1.      Spring framework

2.      API first approach

3.      Cloud Native

4.      Microservices observability

5.      API testing

6.      API gateway

7.      Microservices observability

8.      Service mesh

9.      API gateway

10.    Redis distributed caching

11.    Kafka

12.    Spring Cloud

13.    Service discovery

14.    Spring cloud data flow 15.    Ingress controller

A quick introduction of Cluster API

In this blog we will understand how multi Kubernetes clusters can be managed and orchestrated using the Cluster API  control plane tool.

Cluster API

It’s a sub-project of Kubernetes which works on declarative API and provides support for CRD (Custom Resource Definition), which manages K8s and VMs based on CRD configuration. Cluster API always checks current K8s clusters on worker nodes status and compares them with desired state which is provided by DevOps team using CRD config files. It provides provisioning of multiple K8s clusters which could be spread to multiple nodes/hosts. It extends the functionality of K8s for multi-node cluster management with Kubeadm API.

Cluster API orchestrates  and manages the lifecycle of worker nodes where K8s clusters are provisioned. Also, manages multiple K8s clusters upgrades, failover, rollback etc.

Tip: Cluster API manages K8s clusters of multi-cloud including on-prem and hybrid.

Started by the Kubernetes Special Interest Group (SIG) Cluster Lifecycle, the Cluster API project uses Kubernetes style APIs and patterns to automate cluster lifecycle management.

Refer Cluster API docs here:

Cluster API cluster management reference architecture

These are important components of Cluster API:

Infrastructure provider

Basic hardware infrastructure providers such as Vmware, public infra providers such as AWS, GCP, Azure etc.

Bootstrap provider

It’s also called Cluster API bootstrap provider Kubeadm (CABPK). It generates cluster certificates, initialize/bootstrap control planes. It turns the Machine into a K8s Node. It uses the Kubeadm tool.


It manages the lifecycle of K8s clusters on multiple nodes. Kubeadm is a tool built to provide best-practice “fast paths” for creating Kubernetes clusters. It performs the actions necessary to get a minimum viable, secure cluster up and running in a user friendly way.


Control plane

Control plane is a set of services which manages multiple K8s clusters and scale on production environments. It manages and provisioned dedicated machines/VMs, running static pods for components such as kube-apiserver, kube-controller-manager and kube-scheduler.

The default provider uses kubeadm to bootstrap the control plane.

Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs)

It’s a set of K8s YAML configuration files which maintain desired K8s cluster state. It can be persisted on Git server for platform automation for Cluster API based K8s clusters.


It defines configuration of machines like VM etc. It’s a declarative spec for an infrastructure component hosting a Kubernetes Node. It’s like POD on K8s.


It provides declarative updates for Machines and MachineSets.


It maintains a stable set of Machines running at any given time. It’s like a ReplicaSet of K8s.


It defines the conditions when a Node should be considered unhealthy. If the Node has any unhealthy conditions for a given user-configured time, the MachineHealthCheck initiates remediation of the Node. Remediation of Nodes is performed by deleting the corresponding Machine and creating a new one like ReplicaSet. It always maintains the same set of Machine configuration which has been provided in the CRD file.


It contains the Machine or Node role-specific initialization data (usually cloud-init) used by the Infrastructure Provider to bootstrap a Machine into a Node.

Business Benefits of Cloud

I had been busy with my other work assignments. publishing this blog after a long interval. Hope you like it !

It’s important to understand benefits for the business who is planning to migrate to cloud and invest time and money. These are some generic and common benefits after adopting cloud technology using modern application approach:

  • Smoother and faster app user experience: Cloud provides faster, highly available app interfaces which improves rich user experience. For example, AWS stores static web pages and images at nearby CDN(Content Delivery Network) servers physically on cloud, which provides faster and smooth application response.
  • On demand scaling for infrastructure: Cloud provides on demand compute, memory and storage horizontal/vertical scaling. Organizations/customers should not bother about infra prediction for higher load and they also save money to use only required infrastructure resources.
  • No outage for users and clients: Cloud provides high availability, so whenever any app server is down, client load will be diverted to other app server or a new app server will be created. User and client sessions will also be managed automatically using internal load balancers.
  • Less operational cost (OPEX): Cloud manages most of the infra management operation automatically or by cloud providers. For example, PAAS (Platform as a service) automates entire platform automation with a smaller number of DevOps resources, which saves a lot operational cost.
  • Easy to manage: Cloud providers and PAAS platforms provides very easy and intuitive web, CLI and API based console or interface, which can be easily integrated with the CI/CD tools, IAAC (Infrastructure as a Code) and scripts. They can also be integrated with apps etc.
  • Release app features quickly to compete in market: Cloud provides a lot of ready-to use services on cloud, which takes lesser time to build and deploy apps to cloud quickly using microservices agile like development methodologies. It supports container-based orchestration services like Kubernetes, where smaller microservices can be deployed in quick time, which enables organizations to release new feature quickly.
  • Increased security: Cloud solutions provider out of the box intrinsic security features at various level of application, network, data and infra level. For example, AWS provides DDOS and OWASP security features with firewall etc.
  • Increase developer productivity: Cloud providers various tools and services to improve developer productivity like PAAS, Tanzu Build Service. Spring framework, AWS BeanStalk, GCP, OpenShift developer tools etc.
  • Modular Teams:  Cloud migration motivates to follow modern applications microservice framework for dev and test teams to work in agile on independent modules or microservices independently.
  • Public cloud’s “pay as you go” usage policy: Customer has to pay for pay as you go usage of infra, so that no extra infra resources wasted. These public service providers pricing model saves a lot of cost.
  • Easy disaster recovery handling: Cloud deployed on multiple data centers (DCs) or availability zones (AZs) for disaster recovery (DR), so that if any site (DC/AZ) is down then client or application load will be automatically routed to other site using load balancers.
  • Business continuity: It provides all necessary processes and tools to manages business continuity (BC) for smooth and resilient business operations. They. Provide faster site recovery in case of disaster and data backup. Cloud also provides enterprise compliances for various industries like HIPAA for health insurance etc.

Cloud native modern application and microservices related buzzwords

Disclaimer: This blog content has been taken from my latest book:

“Cloud Native Microservices with Spring and Kubernetes”

On this Covid weekend. I have tried to consolidate a few popular cloud native and microservices related acronyms and buzzwords. Hope it will be helpful for a quick reference for novice and pro professionals :

  • DDD: Domain Driven Design is used for microservices design based on closed context of independent business modules
  • DoS: A Denial-of-Service (DoS) is a cyber-attack  to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users. DoS attacks accomplish this by flooding the target with traffic, or sending it information that triggers a crash.
  • DDoS: It’s an extension DoS. he incoming traffic flooding the victim originates from many different sources. This effectively makes it impossible to stop the attack simply by blocking a single source.
  • API: Application Program Interface. It’s a computing interface which defines interactions between multiple software applications and can be interacted using REST.
  • REST:  Representational state transfer (REST) is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services.
  • OWASP: The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an online community that produces freely-available articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies in the field of web application security.
  • DC: Data Center. It’s a physical facility that organizations use to host their critical applications and data.
  • AZ: Availability Zones are isolated virtual locations within data center regions from which public cloud services originate and operate for HA, DR, backup.
  • HA: High Availability
  • DR: Disaster Recovery
  • A&A: Authorization & Authentication
  • BM : Bare Metal on plain OS.
  • OS: Operating system
  • SQL: Structured Query Language for RDBMS databases like MySQL, Oracle
  • No-SQL: No- Structured Query Language for Non-RDBMS databases like document based database MongoDB, or column based database HBase, GreenPlum etc.
  • BYO: Bring Your Own. Example: Bring your own software.
  • DIY: Do It Yourself. It’s used for mainly self-service management/operations.
  • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It works on handshaking dialogues.
  • UDP: User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suit. It has no handshaking dialogues.
  • DevOps: A set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery and continuous integration with high software quality. DevOps is complementary with Agile software development.
  • DevSecOps: is the philosophy of integrating security practices within the DevOps process. DevSecOps involves creating a ‘Security as Code’ culture with ongoing, flexible collaboration between release engineers and security teams.
  • CI/CD: Continuous Delivery and Continuous Integration.
  • Agile software development: Iterative sprint based rapid development model.
  • H/W: Hardware
  • H/W: Software
  • CQRS: Command query responsibility segregation is microservice design pattern to separate read and write command responsibilities of data.
  • SAGA: Microservices architectural pattern to implement a transaction that spans across multiple microservices
  • HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-layer protocol for transmitting web-content
  • HTTPS: HTTP with SSL security
  • SSL & TSL: Secure Sockets Layer and its successor, TLS (Transport Layer Security), are protocols for establishing authenticated and encrypted links between networked computers or cloud appications/services.
  • Greenfield: New scratch application
  • Brownfield: Legacy or old application
  • MFA: Multi-factor authentication which involved more than one device to authenticate like login credentials with mobile based OTP confirmation.
  • OTP: One Time password
  • RBAC: Role-based access control (RBAC) is a method of restricting network access based on the roles of individual users within an enterprise.
  • AWS: Amazon Web services. A leading public cloud provider.
  • GCP: Google Cloud Platform. A leading public cloud provider

Install Tanzu Build Service (TBS v1.0 GA) on Kubernetes – build docker image and store in DockerHub image registry

In this blog I will cover these following scope-

  1. How to install TBS on local KIND/TKGI/TKG and other Kubernetes clusters.
  2. How to auto build portable OCI docker image of a SpringBoot (Java) project using an automated build tool VMware Tanzu Build Service which auto detects Git source code repository commit and inject required dependencies and OS base image based on the source code languages and its configuration files. e.g: application.yaml and Maven’s pom.xml for Java/Spring app.
  3. Push this docker image automatically to Docker Hub image registry. You can use any image registry like onprem Harbor, AWS ECR, GCR, Azure ACR etc.
  4. Test Build Image by downloading from Docker-hub image registry and run using Docker
  5. How to build Dot Net application using TBS (Appendix)
  6. FAQ

Currently, Tanzu Build Service (TBS) ships with the following Buildpacks:

  • Java
  • NodeJS
  • .NET Core (supports Windows DotNet App)
  • Python
  • Golang
  • PHP

Why Tanzu Build Service( TBS)?

  1. Save time to re-build, re-test and re-deploy during patching hundreds of containers.
  2. It auto scans source code configuration and language and inject dependencies into docker image that will be required to compile and/or run the app on container/K8s.
  3. Faster build and patching on hundreds of containers.
  4. Faster developer productivity by setting local build on developer’s machine and sync with source code repo like GutHub etc.
  5. Manage common project dependencies for dev teams and sync all developers code with single git branch to avoid any code conflict/sync issues.
  6. Maintain latest image in image registry.
  7. OCI docker image support, build and run anywhere!

Please refer this official documentation page for more detail

Tanzu Build Service v1.0 GA can be installed on any Kubernetes private and public cloud clusters (v1.14 or later) including local machine using Kubernetes shipped with Docker Desktop, MiniKube and managed K8s like TKGI, TKG, GKE, and AKS clusters etc. 

Build Service Components Tanzu Build Service ships with the following components:

  1. kpack
  2. CNB lifecycle


  1. Create Pivnet account. Refer to the official docs for more details on obtaining a Pivotal Network API token. You can create a free account and try on your local machine.
  2. Install Pivnet CLI
  3. Install Docker Desktop (Mac, Windows) – Optional if you are trying to install on your local single node K8s cluster.
  4. Docker Hub account
  5. Install Kubernetes. I have used TKGI K8s cluster on GCP, you can also use KIND(K8s in Docker) with Docker Desktop.
  6. Install the TKGI CLI or kubectl CLI
  7. Install these three Carvel CLIs for your operating system. These can be found on their respective Tanzu Network pages:
  • kapp is a deployment tool that allows users to manage Kubernetes resources in bulk.
  • ytt is a templating tool that understands YAML structure.
  • kbld is tool that builds, pushes, and relocates container images.

How to Install & Configure TBS:

You can download TBS from VMware Tanzu Network (formerly the Pivotal Network, or PivNet) or install using Pivnet CLI command.

Note: I have used Pivnet CLI for all the downloads from VMware PivNet. Refer this official installation guide and advance level configuration:
#Pivnet login using secret token
$ pivnet login --api-token='my-api-token'

$ pivnet download-product-files --product-slug='build-service' --release-version='1.0.2' --product-file-id=773503

#Unarchive the Build Service Bundle file:
$ tar xvf build-service-<version>.tar -C /tmp

#Login to docker-hub. This step will save docker-hub credentials to your K8s cluster. Note: You can use Harbor's url also.
$ docker login

#Login to VMware registry Docker-Hub thru Docker CLI (downloaded with Docker Desktop client)
$ docker login

#Relocate the images for DockerHub with the Carvel tool kbld by running:
# Syntax: kbld relocate -f /tmp/images.lock --lock-output /tmp/images-relocated.lock --repository <IMAGE-REPOSITORY>

$kbld relocate -f /tmp/images.lock --lock-output /tmp/images-relocated.lock --repository itsrajivsrivastava/tanzu-build-service

Connect with your K8s cluster where you want to install TBS:

$ kubectl config use-context <K8s-cluster-name>

Now, install TBS on K8s. You can run these commands from home folder

Then use ytt to push the bundle to the image registry to DockerHub/image registry. It will upload all laungauge buildpacks and other supporting images to Docker-Hub/Harbor.

Note: It will take good time to upload bunch of images. If it fails then you need to re-run the command after deleting failed build of TBS. You can delete “kpack” and “build-service” Kubernetes namespaces.

$ ytt -f /tmp/values.yaml \
    -f /tmp/manifests/ \
    -v docker_repository="<IMAGE-REPOSITORY>" \
    -v docker_username="<REGISTRY-USERNAME>" \
    -v docker_password="<REGISTRY-PASSWORD>" \
    | kbld -f /tmp/images-relocated.lock -f- \
    | kapp deploy -a tanzu-build-service -f- -y

ytt -f /tmp/values.yaml \
    -f /tmp/manifests/ \
    -v docker_repository=“itsrajivsrivastava” \
    -v docker_username="itsrajivsrivastava" \
    -v docker_password=‘******’ \
    | kbld -f /tmp/images-relocated.lock -f- \
    | kapp deploy -a tanzu-build-service -f- -y


  • IMAGE-REPOSITORY is the image repository where Tanzu Build Service images exist.
  • REGISTRY-USERNAME is the username you use to access the registry. expects _json_key as the username when using JSON key file authentication.
  • REGISTRY-PASSWORD is the password you use to access the registry

Install KP CLI:

kp CLI, is used for interacting with your Tanzu Build Service (TBS) installation on K8s cluster. Download the kp binary from the Tanzu Build Service page on Tanzu Network.

Import Tanzu Build Service Dependencies

The Tanzu Build Service Dependencies (Stacks, Buildpacks, Builders, etc.) are used to build applications and keep them patched.

  1. Run this command on CLI  “docker login” 
  2. Accept all these EULA agreements online.

Note: Successfully performing a kp import command requires that your Tanzu Network account has access to the images specified in the Dependency Descriptor file. Currently, users can only access these images if they agree to the EULA for each dependency. Users must navigate to each of the dependency product pages in Tanzu Network and accept the EULA highlighted in yellow underneath the Releases dropdown.

Here are the links to each Tanzu Network page in which users must accept the EULA:

  1. Tanzu Build Service Dependencies
  2. Java Buildpack for VMware Tanzu
  3. Java Native Image Buildpack for VMware Tanzu
  4. Node.js Buildpack for VMware Tanzu
  5. Go Buildpack for VMware Tanzu

Note: `kp import` will fail if it cannot access the images in all of the above Tanzu Network pages.

Note: You must be logged in locally to the registry used for `IMAGE-REGISTRY` during relocation and the Tanzu Network registry ``.

These must be imported with the kp cli and the Dependency Descriptor (descriptor-<version>.yaml) file from the Tanzu Build Service Dependencies page:

$ kp import -f /tmp/descriptor-<version>.yaml

Verify kp Installation

List the custom cluster builders available in your installation:

You should see an output that looks as follows:

$  kp clusterbuilder list
NAME       READY    STACK                          IMAGE
base       true     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic    itsrajivsrivastava/base@sha256:b3062df93d2da25aeff827605790c508570446e53daa8afe05ed2ab4157d1c02
default    true     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic    itsrajivsrivastava/default@sha256:f16ed5de160ca9c13a0080d67280d0b2b843c926595c4d171568d75f96479247
full       true     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic    itsrajivsrivastava/full@sha256:f16ed5de160ca9c13a0080d67280d0b2b843c926595c4d171568d75f96479247
tiny       true     io.paketo.stacks.tiny          itsrajivsrivastava/tiny@sha256:abc4879c03512a072623a7dcb18621d68122b5e608b452f411d8bc552386b8c5

# List the custom cluster builders available in your installation:

$ kp clusterstack list
NAME       READY    ID
base       True     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic
default    True     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic
full       True     io.buildpacks.stacks.bionic
tiny       True     io.paketo.stacks.tiny

Create Git and Image registry secrets in your K8s cluster:

# Docker Hub secret
$ kp secret create docker-creds --dockerhub itsrajivsrivastava -n tbs-demo
  dockerhub password:
  "docker-creds" created

# GitHub Secret
$ kp secret create github-creds --git --git-user rajivmca2004 -n tbs-demo

#Verify and list secret
$ kp secret list -n tbs-demo

NAME                   TARGET

#Delete secret
$ kp secret delete <SECRET-NAME> -n tbs-demo

Create and manage docker image using kp CLI commands:

# Create TBS image: (--tag is mandatory)

$ kp image create <name> \
  --tag <tag> \
  [--builder <builder> or --cluster-builder <cluster-builder>] \
  --namespace <namespace> \
  --env <env> \
  --wait \
  --git <git-repo> \
  --git-revision <git-revision>


$ kp image create spring-petclinic \
  --tag \
  --namespace tbs-demo \
  --git \
  --git-revision master
"spring-petclinic" created

#  Verify image status
$ kp image status spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo
Status:         Ready
Message:        --

Last Successful Build
Id:        1
Reason:    CONFIG

Last Failed Build
Id:        --
Reason:    --

# List the project(s):
$ kp image list -n tbs-demo
NAME                READY    LATEST IMAGE
spring-petclinic    True

# To check image list of any specific project 

$ kp image list spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo
NAME                READY    LATEST IMAGE
spring-petclinic    True

Build docker images:

Here, TBS will sync up with two systems:
1. GitHub – TBS will be in sync with GitHub repo for any commit and triggered after every commit. It also builds docker images.
2. Image Registry/Docker Hub – TBS will automatically push this image which has been created in the last step to image registry Docker-Hub and keep it refreshed all the time for developers and CI/CD build and deployment to K8s containers.
There are two ways to build the image:

  1. Auto Build
  2. Manual Build

Note: If you want to build source code directory which is inside sub-directories or if you have a parent project repo and multiple child project inside this

--sub-path DotNetBuild

$ kp image create dotnetbuildtest \
  --sub-path DotNetBuild \
  --namespace tbs-dotnet-demo \
  --git \
  --git-revision master

1. Auto Build:

Note: First build will be triggered automatically when you create image at the first time.

To check auto build, just make some code changes in your Git branch and check the build progress using this command, It takes a few seconds to trigger. You can watch build logs locally –

# Use, this command, to check build status, also can be used for the first time to build. It will also show build revisions

$ kp build status spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo
Status:           SUCCESS
Build Reasons:    COMMIT

Pod Name:    spring-petclinic-build-2-5csx8-build-pod

Builder:      itsrajivsrivastava/default@sha256:f16ed5de160ca9c13a0080d67280d0b2b843c926595c4d171568d75f96479247
Run Image:

Source:      GitUrl
Revision:    c5b4f7f717a1dc239c002c993c178f75283a7751

BUILDPACK ID                           BUILDPACK VERSION
paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica    4.0.0
paketo-buildpacks/maven                3.1.1
paketo-buildpacks/executable-jar       3.1.1
paketo-buildpacks/apache-tomcat        2.3.0
paketo-buildpacks/dist-zip             2.2.0
paketo-buildpacks/spring-boot          3.2.1

$ kp build list spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo

BUILD    STATUS     IMAGE                                                                                                                          STARTED                FINISHED               REASON
1        SUCCESS    2020-10-10 00:39:10    2020-10-10 00:59:40    CONFIG
2        SUCCESS    2020-10-10 01:07:35    2020-10-10 01:09:48    COMMIT

2. Manual Build:

$ kp image trigger spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo

Check Build Logs:

# To view running logs for a build:

 $ kp build logs spring-petclinic -n tbs-demo

#Check logs for the given release:

 $ kp build logs spring-petclinic --build 1 -n tbs-demo

Note: First build will take some time to download all the dependent libraries. Subsequent build will be super fast!

Applied source code related build packages are mentioned in this following build logs. Since, its a Java app, these build-packs have been applied automatically –

[INFO] Building jar: /workspace/target/spring-petclinic-2.3.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] --- spring-boot-maven-plugin:2.3.0.RELEASE:repackage (repackage) @ spring-petclinic ---
[INFO] Replacing main artifact with repackaged archive
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time:  17:44 min
[INFO] Finished at: 2020-10-09T19:28:07Z
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Removing source code

Paketo Executable JAR Buildpack 3.1.1
  Process types:
    executable-jar: java org.springframework.boot.loader.JarLauncher
    task:           java org.springframework.boot.loader.JarLauncher
    web:            java org.springframework.boot.loader.JarLauncher

Paketo Spring Boot Buildpack 3.2.1
  Launch Helper: Contributing to layer
    Creating /layers/paketo-buildpacks_spring-boot/helper/exec.d/spring-cloud-bindings
    Writing profile.d/helper
  Web Application Type: Contributing to layer
    Servlet web application detected
    Writing env.launch/BPL_JVM_THREAD_COUNT.default
  Spring Cloud Bindings 1.6.0: Contributing to layer
    Reusing cached download from buildpack
    Copying to /layers/paketo-buildpacks_spring-boot/spring-cloud-bindings
  Image labels:
Reusing layers from image ''
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica:helper'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica:java-security-properties'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica:jre'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica:jvmkill'
Reusing layer 'paketo-buildpacks/executable-jar:class-path'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/spring-boot:helper'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/spring-boot:spring-cloud-bindings'
Adding layer 'paketo-buildpacks/spring-boot:web-application-type'
Adding 1/1 app layer(s)
Adding layer 'launcher'
Adding layer 'config'
Adding label 'io.buildpacks.lifecycle.metadata'
Adding label ''
Adding label 'io.buildpacks.project.metadata'
Adding label 'org.opencontainers.image.title'
Adding label 'org.opencontainers.image.version'
Adding label 'org.springframework.boot.spring-configuration-metadata.json'
Adding label 'org.springframework.boot.version'
*** Images (sha256:b6d6a0944600be3552c0b33e0a0759a12b422168484ffff55f9f9e0be4c93217):
Adding cache layer 'paketo-buildpacks/bellsoft-liberica:jdk'
Adding cache layer 'paketo-buildpacks/maven:application'
Adding cache layer 'paketo-buildpacks/maven:cache'
Build successful

Test Build Image

Pull image from Docker-hub:

docker pull itsrajivsrivastava/spring-petclinic

Run this pulled image on docker:

docker run -p 8080:8080 itsrajivsrivastava/spring-petclinic

Now , test on this browser: http://localhost:8080

How to build Dot Net application using TBS

TBS installation, setup yaml configuration, Github and DockerHub secret are same for Dot NET also.Deployment process is also same as Java on docker. There is a separate DotNet buildpack which will be injected to ASP.Net source code project.

Now, we will create TBS Dot Net image:

$ kp image create dotnetbuildtest \
  --tag \
  --namespace tbs-demo \
  --git \
  --git-revision master

$ kp image status dotnetbuildtest -n tbs-demo

If you face this in .Net apps:

Unable to start Kestrel.
System.Net.Sockets.SocketException (13): Permission denied
at System.Net.Sockets.Socket.UpdateStatusAfterSocketErrorAndThrowException(SocketError error, String callerName)
at System.Net.Sockets.Socket.DoBind(EndPoint endPointSnapshot, SocketAddress socketAddress

kestrel will bind to both ipv4 & ipv6. maybe  k8s env doesn’t let it bind to ipv6. Change env port 8080 to force it to only bind to ipv4

Fix– Add this in K8s deployment manifests.

Add this in Ku8s deployment manifest file:
         – name: PORT
           value: “8080”


Where exactly build happens on local machine or on K8s cluster Builds happen in pods on the cluster. Basically everything with the service happens in the K8s cluster. You can interact with the service with the kp cli (now kp cli)
Where it stores all dependent libraries K8s or machine from where kp build starts?
App dependent libraries live in the Stack/buildpacks which would be on the k8s cluster.
Does it keep an image copy locallyIt does not keep a copy of the app image, it only uploads to a registry
Can we cover all CI job for build configuration pipeline and deploy with CD tools/pluginTBS is meant to be a solution that works well in a CI/CD setting. Currently have an integration with concourse CI via
It can also integrated with Jenkin with additional configuration
Can build-pack modified or created new custom buildYes, follow this –

ArgoCD GitOps in 30 mins: Setup CD pipeline and deploy an image on Kubernetes

Disclaimer: This blog content has been taken from my latest book:

“Cloud Native Microservices with Spring and Kubernetes”

I have recently worked and tried out a wonderful continuous delivery (CD) tool ArgoCD. It’s an awesome deployment tool, specially designed to deploy microservices workloads on Kubernetes. It’s a declarative GitOps continuous delivery tool for Kubernetes. It’s has awesome web UI dashboard to monitor and manage deployment. It’s directly linked with source code repo like GitHub.


  • Why ArgoCD?
  • Prerequisite
  • How to install ArgoCD on Kubernetes cluster
  • How to use ArgoCD using UI and CLI headless modes
  • Create a deployment app in ArgoCD with a sample GitHub Repo and sync
  • Other Kubernetes Operations from UI:

Why ArgoCD?

It works on pull mechanism.Application definitions, configurations, and environments should be declarative and version controlled. Application deployment and lifecycle management should be automated, auditable, and easy to understand.

I like the this awesome feature of auto-syncing and deployment on K8s cluster for making any small change in K8s deployment manifest source code.


Kubernetes cluster should be installed and logged in. You can use KIND (Kubernetes Inside Docker) or MiniKube for local testing. I have used TKG Kubernetes cluster.

Kubectl CLI should be installed.

How to install ArgoCD on Kubernetes cluster

a. Install ArgoCD

Refer these easy official docs to install:

How to use ArgoCD

Start ArgoCD Server

$ kubectl port-forward svc/argocd-server -n argocd 9080:443

Forwarding from -> 8080
Forwarding from [::1]:9080 -> 8080

Create a deployment app in ArgoCD with a sample GitHub Repo and sync

You are now almost ready to deploy your application.However, first you need to tell ArgoCD about your deployment target. By default, if you do not add an additional Kubernetes cluster target, ArgoCD will deploy applications to the cluster on which it is installed. To add your target Kubernetes cluster to ArgoCD, use the following:

$ argocd cluster add target-k8s

This will add an ArgoCD service account onto the cluster, which will allow ArgoCD to deploy applications to it

Create an App in ArgoCD with a sample GitHub Repo

There are two ways to create app in ArgoCD:

There are two ways to use ArgoCD:

  1. UI mode
  2. CLI mode (headless)

1. UI mode

Login to ArgoCD:


# User Id - admin, 
# Password - Can be retrieved from this command:

$ kubectl get pods -n argocd -l -o name | cut -d'/' -f 2

Create APP – using ArgoCD UI

  1. Give a project name
  2. Select default cluster
  3. Select your Kubernetes cluster namespace
  4. You need url of source code repo. I am using Github repo.
  5. Select “Target Revision” of source code. I have used “HEAD”
  6. Add “Path” from Kubernetes deployment manifest files location

Note: You can also click on “Sync” button on ArgoCD UI.

Now, simply forward the port as you did for the ArgoCD UI.

$ kubectl port-forward svc/online-store-k8s-demo -n default 1090:8080

Once completed, “online-store-k8s-demo” app will be available at http://localhost:9090. You can open this URL on browser now.

Other Kubernetes Operations from UI:

  1. Logging- POD/deployment/services and other K8s objects logs also on ArgoCD UI dashboard
  2. Delete K8s objects
  3. Sync any specific object like re-deploy/sync selected deployment
  4. Rollback and re-deploy from UI
  5. Track all event on K8s objects
  6. Compare source code changes from the previous revision

2. CLI mode (headless)

Login thru CLI: (Optional)

$ argocd login localhost:8080

Manually using CLI

$ argocd app create online-store-k8s-demo --repo --path . --dest-server  https://kubernetes.default.svc --dest-namespace default

Once this completes, you can see the status and configuration of your app by running the following:

$ argocd app list

For a more detailed view of your application configuration, run:

$ argocd app get online-store-k8s-demo

Initially your app will be Out of Sync and no health status. Now you are ready to sync your application to your target cluster. To do this, simply use the sync command for your application:

$ argocd app sync online-store-k8s-demo

Build ASP.Net core image and deploy on Kubernetes with Contour ingress controller and MetalLB load balancer

In this blog, I will cover up, how to create OCI docker image from Windows ASP .Net application to .Net Core container using open source “Pack” API and deploy on Kubernetes cluster using open source Contour ingress controller. Also, will set up MetaLB load balancer of Kubernetes cluster.


  1. Build .Net Core OCI docker image of ASP .Net application using Pack buildpack API
  2. Run this docker image on docker for quick docker verification
  3. Push docker image to image registry Harbor
  4. Install and configure Contour ingress controller
  5. MetalLB load balancer for Kubernetes LoadBalancer service to expose as an external IP to public
  6. Create a deployment and Service script to deploy docker image
  7. Create an ingress resource and expose this .Dot app to external IP using Contour ingress controller


  • Kubernetes cluster setup. Note: I have used VMware’s Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG)
  • Kubectl CLI
  • Pack buildpack API
  • Image registry Harbor setup
  • git CLI to download Github source code
  • MacOS/Ubuntu Linux or any shell

1. Build OCI docker image of ASP .Net application using Pack buildpack API:

Install and configure “Pack” API. I have installed on Ubuntu Linux:

tar xvf pack-v0.11.2-linux.tgz
mv pack /usr/local/bin
# Browse all suggested builders

$ pack suggest-builders	
Suggested builders:
	Google:                          Ubuntu 18 base image with buildpacks for .NET, Go, Java, Node.js, and Python
	Heroku:                heroku/buildpacks:18                         heroku-18 base image with buildpacks for Ruby, Java, Node.js, Python, Golang, & PHP
	Paketo Buildpacks:        Ubuntu bionic base image with buildpacks for Java, NodeJS and Golang
	Paketo Buildpacks:     cflinuxfs3 base image with buildpacks for Java, .NET, NodeJS, Golang, PHP, HTTPD and NGINX
	Paketo Buildpacks:        Tiny base image (bionic build image, distroless run image) with buildpacks for Golang

Tip: Learn more about a specific builder with:
	pack inspect-builder <builder-image>

# Set this full-cf .Net builder which has support for most of the languages (Java, .NET, NodeJS, Golang, PHP, HTTPD and NGINX).Syntax: pack set-default-builder <builder-image>
$ pack set-default-builder

# Clone the GitHub project
$ git clone and && cd paketo-samples-demo/dotnet-core/aspnet

# Building docker image and convert into .Net core container
$ pack build dotnet-aspnet-sample

2. Run this docker image on docker for quick docker verification

# Running docker image for quick verification before deploying to K8s cluster
$ docker run --interactive --tty --env PORT=8080 --publish 8080:8080 dotnet-aspnet-sample

# Viewing
$ curl http://localhost:8080

3. Push docker image to image registry Harbor

$ docker login -u admin -p Harbor123

#Push to Harbor image registry
$ docker push

We need an ingress controller to expose Kubernetes services as external IP. It will work as an internal load balancer to expose to K8s services on http/https and REST APIs of microservices.

4. Install and configure Contour ingress controller

Refer this installation doc of Contour open source for more information

# Run this command to download and install Contour open source project

$ kubectl apply -f

5. MetalLB load balancer for Kubernetes LoadBalancer service to expose as an external IP to public

Kubernetes does not offer an implementation of network load-balancers (Services of type LoadBalancer) for bare metal clusters. The implementations of Network LB that Kubernetes does ship with are all glue code that calls out to various IaaS platforms (vSphere, TKG, GCP, AWS, Azure, OpenStack etc). If you’re not running on a supported IaaS platform, LoadBalancers will remain in the “pending” state indefinitely when created.

Bare metal cluster operators are left with two lesser tools to bring user traffic into their clusters, “NodePort” and “externalIPs” services. Both of these options have significant downsides for production use, which makes bare metal clusters second class citizens in the Kubernetes ecosystem.

Please follow this MetalLB installation doc for the latest version.  Check that MetalLB is running.

$ kubectl get pods -n metallb-system

Create layer 2 configuration:

Create a metallb-configmap.yaml file and modify your IP range accordingly.

$vim metallb-configmap.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
  namespace: metallb-system
  name: config
  config: |
    - name: default
      protocol: layer2

# Configure MetalLB
$ kubectl apply -f metallb-configmap.yaml

6. Create a deployment and Service script to deploy docker image

You can download and refer complete code from GitHub repo.

$ vim dotnetcore-asp-deployment.yml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: dotnetcore-demo-service
  namespace: default
  - port: 80
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 80
    app: dotnetcore-demo-app
  sessionAffinity: None
  type: ClusterIP
  loadBalancer: {}

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: dotnetcore-app-deployment
  namespace: default
    runAsUser: 0
      app: dotnetcore-demo-app
  replicas: 3
  template: # create pods using pod definition in this template
        app: dotnetcore-demo-app
      - name: dotnetcore-demo-app
        - containerPort: 9080
          name: server

Deploy the .Net Core pods:

$ kubectl apply -f nginx-deployment.yml

7. Create an ingress resource and expose this .Dot app to external IP using Contour ingress controller

Create an ingress resource:

$ vim dotnetcore-ingress-cluster.yml

kind: Ingress
  name: dotnetcore-demo-cluster1-gateway
    app: dotnetcore-demo-app
  - http:
      - path: /
          serviceName: dotnetcore-demo-service
          servicePort: 80

# Create ingress resource
$ kubectl apply -f dotnetcore-ingress-cluster1.yaml

Get the IP of the .Net Core K8s service to access the application:

$ kubectl get svc
NAME           TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP    PORT(S)        AGE
dotnetcore-demo-service       LoadBalancer   80:30452/TCP   5m

To test open this URL in your browser with external IP=> http://[EXTERNAL-IP]/

Tanzu Kubernetes Grid air gapped installation (TKG v1.1.2) on vSphere v6.7- offline environment

Recently,I have done a POC for a client with the latest TKG v1.1.2 ( Latest updated: July’20) and faced a couple of challenges on air- gapped environment. Installing and configuring TKG management and worker clusters on air-gapped (No Internet/offline) environment is nightmare. You need to plan properly and download all required docker images of TKG and related technology stacks and libraries on your private image registry first. I have used Harbor open source image registry in this blog.

This blog is not replacement of official doc. It’s quick references to join all the dots, tips like how to manually download, tag, push and change K8s manifest files images, prerequisite and other quick references to save time and have everything on a single pager.

I have followed this deploying TKG instructions on an air-gapped environment (Deploy Tanzu Kubernetes Grid to vSphere in an Air-Gapped Environment), there are some more steps required to complete successful installation. This blog will cover TKG v1.1.2 on vSphere 6.7 in air gapped environment.

Note: I have used latest Ubuntu v20.04 LTS on bootstrap VM which will have Internet connectivity. You can sue CentOS are any other Linux flavour.

Note: I have used latest Ubuntu v20.04 LTS on bootstrap VM which will have Internet connectivity. You can use CentOS are any other Linux flavour.

I have used TKG dev plan:

Prerequisite for Bootstrap Env – Ubuntu/CentOS LinuxPackages/URLs
DHCP Should be Enabled DHCP- DHCP installation on Ubuntu
DNS Enabled Mandatory- Public or private DNS muste be enabled on subnet IP tange 
Ubuntu OS Core server install version 20.04 LTS/ 18.04 LTS
HomeBrew ( if not available)Linux/MAcOS-
Optional – It’s good to install CLIs and other required libaries. Node advisable for air-gapped env installation on K8s clusters.

Ref docs:
Mandatory – For K8s
$ brew install kubectl
$ kubectl version
Docker Desktop and CLI Installation and Setup: (Ubuntu)Ubuntu:
Mandatory : Ubuntu- is available from the Ubuntu repositories (as of Xenial).
# Install Docker
sudo apt install
sudo apt install docker-compose

# Start /stop
sudo systemctl start docker
sudo systemctl stop docker

sudo docker ps -a
sudo docker rm -f <PID>
docker info
Harbor Need to setup DNS servers for Harbor to resolve domaion name.  
Follow TKG v1.1.2 installation steps on air gapped env for vSphere v6.7 
Download TKG binaries:  Linux 
VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1.0 Kubernetes v1.18.2 OVAPhoton v3 Kubernetes 1.18.2 OVA 
VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1 CLIVMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI 1.1 Linux 
VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1 Load Balancer OVA Photon v3 capv haproxy v1.2.4 OVA 
clusterawsadm Account Preparation Tool v0.5.3ClusterAdmin AWS v0.5.3 Linux 
VMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1 Extension manifestsVMware Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Extensions Manifest 1.1 
Crash Diagnostics v0.2.2Crash Recovery and Diagnostics for Kubernetes 0.2.2 Linux 

Step-1: Setup all prerequisite, install Ubuntu OS on bootstrap VM

Step:2 Download all binaries with your VMware credentials and push/copy all compressed tar files to bootstrap VM machine.

Step:3 Make sure Internet is available on the bootstrap VM from where you need to initiate installation of TKG and other binaries.

Step:4 Install Docker Desktop and CLI. Make sure that the internet-connected machine has Docker installed and running.

Step:5 Install Harbor and create certificate using OpenSSL and https config. Also, add harbor certificates in docker config file in .harbor/harbor.yml

# https related config
  # https port for harbor, default is 443
  port: 443
  # The path of cert and key files for nginx
  certificate: /root/harbor/data/cert/
  private_key: /root/harbor/data/cert/
#edit /etc/hosts and add namespace entry of DNS server

$ systemd-resolve --status

Verify: Make sure that you can connect to the private registry from the internet-connected machine.

$ docker login -u admin -p <password>

Step:6 Install kubectl CLI

Step:7 Install tkg CLI on same bootstrap VM with external internet connection, and follow the instructions in Download and Install the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI to download, unpack, and install the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI binary on your internet-connected system.

Step:8 Follow all the steps as mentioned in the installation doc. Open vSphere UI console and provide all vCenter v6.7 server details, vLAN, resource configuration etc. It will create configuration file config.yaml in .tkg folder which will have all main TKG installation configuration.

Note: vCenter server should be an IP or FQDN in only small letters.

Step:9 Upload TKG and HAProxy OVA to vSphere UI console.

Step:10 Add this export before initiating TKG installation –


Step:11 Download all required docker images for TKG installation and push to Harbor and follow these steps –


Note: TKG Repo pull all docker images from public image registry-

  • On the bootstrap machine with an internet connection on which you have performed the initial setup tasks and installed the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid CLI, install yq 2.x. NOTE: You must use yq version 2.x. Version 3.x does not work with this script.
  • Run the $ tkg get management-cluster command.
  • Running a tkg command for the first time installs the necessary Tanzu Kubernetes
  • Grid configuration files in the ~/.tkg folder on your system. The script that you create and run in subsequent steps requires the files in the ~/.tkg/bom folder to be present on your machine. Note: TKG v1.1.2 picks bom/bom-1.1.2+vmware.1.yaml image file.
  • Set the IP address or FQDN of your local registry as an environment variable.In the following command example, replace with the address of your private Docker registry.
  • Copy and paste the following script in a text editor, and save it as
#!/usr/bin/env bash
# Copyright 2020 The TKG Contributors.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
    echo "TKG_CUSTOM_IMAGE_REPOSITORY variable is not defined"
    exit 1
for TKG_BOM_FILE in "$BOM_DIR"/*.yaml; do
    # Get actual image repository from BoM file
    actualImageRepository=$(yq .imageConfig.imageRepository "$TKG_BOM_FILE" | tr -d '"')
    # Iterate through BoM file to create the complete Image name
    # and then pull, retag and push image to custom registry
    yq .images "$TKG_BOM_FILE" | jq -c '.[]' | while read -r i; do
        # Get imagePath and imageTag
        imagePath=$(jq .imagePath <<<"$i" | tr -d '"')
        imageTag=$(jq .tag <<<"$i" | tr -d '"')
        # create complete image names
        echo "docker pull $actualImage"
        echo "docker tag $actualImage $customImage"
        echo "docker push $customImage"
        echo ""
  • Make the script executable .chmod +x
  • Generate a new version of the script that is populated with the address of your private Docker registry ../ >
  • Verify that the generated version of the script contains the correct registry address cat
  • Make the script executable .chmod +x
  • Log in to your local private registry. docker login ${TKG_CUSTOM_IMAGE_REPOSITORY}
  • Run the script to pull the required images from the public Tanzu Kubernetes Grid registry, retag them, and push them to your private registry ../
  • When the script finishes, turn off your internet connection. (Optional) After that Internet is not required for TKG.
  • Modify TKG dev installation plan. Run these following commands on the home directory one level up (outside of .tkg folder location) :
$ export REGISTRY=""
$ export NAMESERVER=""
$ export DOMAIN=""
$ cat > /tmp/ <<EOF
echo "nameserver $NAMESERVER" > /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf
echo "domain $DOMAIN" >> /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf
rm /etc/resolv.conf
ln -s /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf
mkdir -p /etc/containerd
echo "" > /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '1 i\# Use config version 2 to enable new configuration fields.' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '2 i\# Config file is parsed as version 1 by default.' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '3 i\version = 2' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '4 i\ ' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '5 i\[plugins]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '6 i\  [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri"]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '7 i\    sandbox_image = ""' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '8 i\    [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '9 i\      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '10 i\        [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."$REGISTRY"]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '11 i\          endpoint = ["https://$REGISTRY"]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '12 i\      [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '13 i\        [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs."$REGISTRY"]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '14 i\          [plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.configs."$REGISTRY".tls]' /etc/containerd/config.toml
sed -i '15 i\            insecure_skip_verify = true' /etc/containerd/config.toml
systemctl restart containerd
$ awk '{print "    -", $0}' /tmp/ > /tmp/harbor1.yaml
$ awk '{print "      -", $0}' /tmp/ > /tmp/harbor2.yaml
$ sed -i '197 e cat /tmp/harbor1.yaml\n' ~/.tkg/providers/infrastructure-vsphere/v0.6.5/cluster-template-dev.yaml
$ sed -i '249 e cat /tmp/harbor2.yaml\n' ~/.tkg/providers/infrastructure-vsphere/v0.6.5/cluster-template-dev.yaml
$ rm /tmp/harbor1.yaml /tmp/harbor2.yaml /tmp/

Step:12 Run this on terminal to initiate installation process, it will create .tkg folder and required config file. In v1.1.2 .bom folder has all image repositiories

$ sudo tkg init --ui -v 6

Step:13  As soon as kind container is up . Run this exec steps into KIND cluster and ran below script.

Identify KIND docker image by :

$ docker ps -a
$ docker exec -it <KIND docker image id> /bin/sh
echo '# explicitly use v2 config format
version = 2
# set default runtime handler to v2, which has a per-pod shim
    sandbox_image = ""
      default_runtime_name = "runc"
        runtime_type = "io.containerd.runc.v2"
          endpoint = [""]
            insecure_skip_verify = true' > /etc/containerd/config.toml

Step:14 At this step, management cluster is created. Now, you can create work load clusters as per installation instructions.

Step:15 To visualize, monitor and inspect TKG Kubernetes clusters. Install Octant UI dashboard. Octant should immediately launch your default web browser on

$ octant

Note: Or to run it on a specific host and fixed port:



Important Trick:

Pull and push docker images in Air gapped environment

Now, your K8s cluster is ready, next you would like to install K8s deployment or any other K8s images which pulls dependent images from public Internet. Your Kubernetes cluster running on air-gapped environment can’t download any image from public repository (dockerhub,, gcr etc).

Refer my short blog for how to do operation: Pull and push docker images in Air gapped (No Internet) environment

VMware Tanzu Offerings Cheat Sheet: References, technical docs and demo videos

This blog will cover all important and quick useful references of the VMware Tanzu offerings. It’s a cheat sheet and a single pager info for all the Tanzu enterprise product offerings, technical docs, demo videos and white-papers. Hope this one pager info will be handy for developers, architects, business owners, operators and organisations:

Tanzu Bundles

Tanzu BasicOfficial Doc:

Video and demo:
Tanzu StandardOfficial Doc:

Video and demo:
Tanzu AdvancedOfficial Doc:

Video and demo:

Tanzu Resources:

Tanzu Kubernetes Grid
This is VMWare’s enterprise ready upstream Kubernetes distribution and will be available in different form factors based on end user / customer requirements.

TKG provides enterprises with a consistent, upstream aligned, automated multi-cluster operations across SDDC, Public Cloud, and Edge environments that is ready for end-user workloads and ecosystem integrations. TKG does for Kubernetes what Kubernetes does for your containers.

* vSphere7 with native TKG: As embedded in vSphere 7.0  – Fully managed K8s experience on top of vSphere. The solution unlocks on-prem vSphere deployments to run Kubernetes natively. New features in NSX, vCenter and ESXi elevates VMs, K8s pods and K8s clusters to first class citizens in vSphere, enabling vSphere admins to manage and delegate these new computing constructs seamlessly to DevOps teams. This solution also provides all the benefits of the underpinning TKG technology.

* TKG+ – Build your own K8s platform with VMWare support with ClusterAPI and KubeADM support. Its provides true open source K8s experience with support for few open source tools (Harbor registry, Contour, Sonobuy, Dex, EFK,,Velero, Prometheus, Grafana etc.)

* TKGI (Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated)– Fully Managed K8s as a Service on any private/public Cloud. Great opinionated choice for  day 2 operation, because its operation is fully automated.

* TKG as a service on TMC : TKG managed services on TMC (Tanzu Mission Control)

Overview Videos:
Video 1
Video 2

Demo: Tanzu Kubernetes Grid

Tools :
Crash-Diagnostics (CrashD) – Public git page here  which monitors – Bootstrap cluster setup, Management cluster setup, Workload cluster setup
Tanzu Kubernetes Grid Integrated (TKGI)This is VMWare’s enterprise ready upstream Kubernetes distribution with BOSH director. TKGI provides the ability for organizations to rapidly deploy fleets of Kubernetes clusters in a secure and consistent manner across clouds with minimal effort.  It also simplifies the ability to rapidly repave and patch your fleets of Kubernetes clusters. It provides teams access to both Linux and Windows containers


Vmware Spring Runtime (VSR)It’s a standalone product offering under Tanzu to cover Production and Development support for OpenJDK, 40+ Spring projects (including the ones used in IDP) and Tomcat.

Get support and signed binaries for OpenJDK, Tomcat, and Spring. Globe spanning support is available 24*7 and your organization gets access to product team and knowledge base. Avoid maintaining expensive custom code. Get VMware’s TC Server, a hardened, curated, and enterprise ready Tomcat installation.

– Doc:

– Spring technical doc-

– Create quick Spring project :

Tanzu Application Services (VM -Diego Container)
Fully automated PAAS (Platform As a Service platform) to increase productivity by automating all cloud related configuration and deployment on cloud by just a single command and only source code of the application. It’s based on Diego container.

TAS fully automates the deployment and management of applications on any cloud. This makes your operations team more efficient, improves developer productivity, and enhances your security posture.  This enables your organization to achieve the business outcomes they desire by reducing time to market.

Product page on
Tanzu Build ServiceTBS is a tool to build OCI container images and manage the container life cycle irrespective of the deployment platform. Based on the CNCF project TBS takes care the pain of maintaining docker files and brings in standardisation to you docker image build process.

TBS customers will close vulnerabilities orders of magnitude faster, they will have developers who spend nearly no time on image builds, and they will be able to easily and programatically audit production containers. TBS eliminates 95% of the toil of the container lifecycle and allows platform teams to offer automated “code to cloud” style functionality to their developers.

– Doc:

– Overview and Demo:

– Blog:
Tanzu Application Catalog (TAC)TAC is a curated collection of production-ready popular opensource software that can be used by IDP users. Software support is still based on what’s available with the open source version, but VMWare provide the ‘proof of provenance’ as well as enterprise grade testing on these images. Also it allows customers to bring your own Golden Image while Bitnami(VMWare) is making this image for your developers.

Working with pre-packaged software poses risks and challenges. Developers are sourcing containers from Docker Hub that are out of date, vulnerable, insecure by default, or broken. Auditing, hardening, integrating, and making software ready for production is time consuming, difficult, and low value add from an organizational standpoint. It’s also frustrating to dev teams as software selection will be limited and lag behind open source options.

– Doc (on-boarding) :

– Demo:

– FAQ:
Tanzu Service Mesh (TSM)Tanzu Service Mesh not only simplifies lifecycle management of service mesh over fleets of K8s clusters, it provides unified management, global policies, and seamless connectivity across complex, multi-cluster mesh topologies managed by disparate teams. It provides app-level observability across services deployed to different clusters, complementing/integrating into modern observability tools you use or are considering.

– Doc:

– Demo  for Microservices –

– Public doc:

– Blog:
Tanzu Service Mesh on VMware Tanzu: CONNECT & PROTECT Applications Across Your Kubernetes Clusters and Clouds 
Tanzu Mission Control
VMware Tanzu Mission Control provides a single control point for teams to more easily manage Kubernetes and operate modern, containerized applications across multiple clouds and clusters. It codifies the know-how of operating Kubernetes including deploying and upgrading clusters, setting policies and configurations, understanding the health of clusters and the root cause of underlying issues.

– Doc:

A Closer Look at Tanzu Mission Control :
A Multi-Cluster K8s Management Platform video

Data Protection on Tanzu Mission Control :

TMC Demo:
Tanzu Observability/WaveFront (TO) The VMware Tanzu Observability by Wavefront platform is purpose built to handle requirements of modern  applications and multi-cloud at high scale. It’s a unified solution with analytics (including AI) that ingests visualizes, and  analyzes metrics, traces, histograms and span logs.  So you can resolve incidents  faster across cloud applications,  correlated with the cloud infrastructures views.

Doc, videos and integrations

Application monitoring/End User Monitoring ( EUM ) integration:


– Demo2:
Microservices Observability with WaveFront

SpringBoot Integration:
Tanzu Data Services – GreenPlum, GemFire, RabbitMQ, SQL/PostGresSQLVMware also has SQL, NoSQL, messaging broker, analytical and distributed caching solutions.

GreenPlum – Analytical database based on PostGresSQL
GemFire – Distributed caching
RabbitMQ – Messaging broker
SQL/PostGresSQL – SQL databases
Concourse CI/CDIt’s an opensource for platform automation.

The Making of a Cloud-Native CI/CD Tool:
The Concourse Journey (Blog)
Concourse on
Concourse OSS Site
Concourse Documentation
Hands on Lab (HOL) trial AccessTrial hands on lab without installation-

Windows .Net support:

Microsoft developer framework with tools and libraries for building any type of app, including web, mobile, desktop, gaming, IoT, cloud, and microservices. Key Resources:

Pull and push docker images in offline air gapped (No Internet) environment

When you would to install K8s deployment or any other K8s images which pulls dependent images from public Internet. Your Kubernetes cluster running on air-gapped environment can’t download any image from public repository (dockerhub,, gcr etc). You need to pull it first on bootstrap VM where public internet connectivity is there, then tag it and push it to your local image Harbor. Your K8s cluster will pick images from the local Harbor only. Whenever you have tom install any K8s deployable, you need to manually change deployment manifest and replace image path from public to local repo harbor/jFrog etc.

# Pull from public image registry
docker pull metallb/speaker:v0.9.3

# Tag it with your Harbor host
docker tag metallb/speaker:v0.9.3 $HARBOR_HOST/library/metallb/speaker:v0.9.3

#Push to local image registry harbor/jFrog
docker push $HARBOR_HOST/library/metallb/speaker:v0.9.3

#Change image name in your K8s deployment manifest. You are all set!
$ vi metallb-manifest.yml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: dotnetcore-app-deployment
  namespace: default
    runAsUser: 0
      app: dotnetcore-demo-app
  replicas: 3 # tells deployment to run N pods matching the template
  template: # create pods using pod definition in this template
        app: dotnetcore-demo-app
      - name: dotnetcore-demo-app
        - containerPort: 9080
          name: server

$ kubectl apply -f metallb-manifest.yml

Note: Helm package installable really won’t work on air gapped env, because it tries to pull images from public Internet. You need to refer manifesy yml files only, becuase you haver to chnage the image registry server path before running it on K8s cluster.